E-ISSN 2636-834X
 

Original Research 


Problematic WhatsApp Use Among Adolescents: Linking Fear of Missing Out and Psychiatric Symptoms

Hesna Gul, Sumeyra Firat, Mehmet Sertcelik, Ahmet Gul, Yusuf Gurel, Birim Gunay Kilic.

Abstract
Abstract
Objective: WhatsApp (WA) is the most popular instant message application all over the world. Although communication has become easier and enjoyable with the help of this application, the overuse, and addiction of WA has become an important problem among adolescents. WhatsApp addiction is a part of problematic smartphone use (PSU). When we examined previous studies, we found that the samples were generally composed of young adults, but studies on adolescents who are at high risk for problematic Whatsapp use (PWU) were insufficient, and almost no studies were conducted in the clinical adolescent sample. In this study, we aimed to increase our knowledge about problematic Whatsapp use (PWU) and possible risk factors including fear of missing out (FoMO), PSU, and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents who applied to outpatient psychiatry clinics.
Method: 197 adolescents (136 boys, 61 girls, age: 12-18 years) recruited the study. Problematic Mobile Phone Usage Scale (PMPUS), Bergen Whatsapp Addiction Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) Scale were used.
Results: We grouped the sample as PWU (Problematic WhatsApp use) and Normal Use group due to Bergen WA Addiction scale. PWU groupís adolescents were significantly older than others (p=0.03), and had higher scores in all subscales of Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), FoMO and PMPUS (for all scale scores p<0.001). Regression analysis demonstrated that FoMO is a predictor of PWU. Also, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, phobic anxiety, and somatization had a positive effect (ő≤=1.80, 0.98, 1.26, 0.52; respectively) while obsession-compulsion and depression had a negative effect on PWU (ő≤=-0.76, -1.22, respectively).
Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that problematic Whatsapp use is an important internet-related behavioral problem and have specific risk factors among adolescents. Adolescents use Whatsapp generally with their real friends/relatives. Adolescents who have depression, obsession-compulsion mostly have social withdrawal, and would not be interested in communicating their real social environment. On the other hand, adolescents who have phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism and somatization symptoms would follow the changes and events more closely. The associations between different psychiatric symptoms and PWU could guide the practitioners in the psychiatric care of adolescents.

Key words: Problematic Whatsapp Use; Fear of Missing Out; Problematic Smartphone Use; Psychiatric Symptoms, Adolescents


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Gul H, Firat S, Sertcelik M, Gul A, Gurel Y, Kilic BG. Problematic WhatsApp Use Among Adolescents: Linking Fear of Missing Out and Psychiatric Symptoms. PBS. 2021; 11(2): 96-103. doi:10.5455/PBS.20210509093936


Web Style

Gul H, Firat S, Sertcelik M, Gul A, Gurel Y, Kilic BG. Problematic WhatsApp Use Among Adolescents: Linking Fear of Missing Out and Psychiatric Symptoms. http://www.pbsciences.org/?mno=80179 [Access: July 26, 2021]. doi:10.5455/PBS.20210509093936


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Gul H, Firat S, Sertcelik M, Gul A, Gurel Y, Kilic BG. Problematic WhatsApp Use Among Adolescents: Linking Fear of Missing Out and Psychiatric Symptoms. PBS. 2021; 11(2): 96-103. doi:10.5455/PBS.20210509093936



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Gul H, Firat S, Sertcelik M, Gul A, Gurel Y, Kilic BG. Problematic WhatsApp Use Among Adolescents: Linking Fear of Missing Out and Psychiatric Symptoms. PBS. (2021), [cited July 26, 2021]; 11(2): 96-103. doi:10.5455/PBS.20210509093936



Harvard Style

Gul, H., Firat, . S., Sertcelik, . M., Gul, . A., Gurel, . Y. & Kilic, . B. G. (2021) Problematic WhatsApp Use Among Adolescents: Linking Fear of Missing Out and Psychiatric Symptoms. PBS, 11 (2), 96-103. doi:10.5455/PBS.20210509093936



Turabian Style

Gul, Hesna, Sumeyra Firat, Mehmet Sertcelik, Ahmet Gul, Yusuf Gurel, and Birim Gunay Kilic. 2021. Problematic WhatsApp Use Among Adolescents: Linking Fear of Missing Out and Psychiatric Symptoms. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 11 (2), 96-103. doi:10.5455/PBS.20210509093936



Chicago Style

Gul, Hesna, Sumeyra Firat, Mehmet Sertcelik, Ahmet Gul, Yusuf Gurel, and Birim Gunay Kilic. "Problematic WhatsApp Use Among Adolescents: Linking Fear of Missing Out and Psychiatric Symptoms." Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 11 (2021), 96-103. doi:10.5455/PBS.20210509093936



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Gul, Hesna, Sumeyra Firat, Mehmet Sertcelik, Ahmet Gul, Yusuf Gurel, and Birim Gunay Kilic. "Problematic WhatsApp Use Among Adolescents: Linking Fear of Missing Out and Psychiatric Symptoms." Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 11.2 (2021), 96-103. Print. doi:10.5455/PBS.20210509093936



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Gul, H., Firat, . S., Sertcelik, . M., Gul, . A., Gurel, . Y. & Kilic, . B. G. (2021) Problematic WhatsApp Use Among Adolescents: Linking Fear of Missing Out and Psychiatric Symptoms. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 11 (2), 96-103. doi:10.5455/PBS.20210509093936