E-ISSN 2636-834X

Review Article 

Emotional eating

Güzin Mukaddes Sevinçer, Numan Konuk.

Cited By: 20

Emotional eating is a concept which describes a tendency towards overeating in response to the negative emotions. Emotional eating was initially recognized along with bulimia that emotions taken as a factor which reinforces the over-eating of bulimic patients. Later on, it was found out that binge eating itself could also be related to emotional eating. Emotional eating is prevalant in people who have obesity, women with eating disorders, and people who have a regular weight but are on diet. The concept of emotional eating is becoming increasingly important, especially in the interventions for weight-loss management. Considering the issues such as eating disorders and weight changes in psychiatric disorders, diabetes and metabolic syndrome- no matter relation with the side effects of drugs, and psycho-social issues entangled with weight-loss management, makes it obvious that the concept of emotional eating demands more research.

Key words: emotional eating, binge eating, obesity, eating disorders

PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Güzin Mukaddes Sevinçer
Articles by Numan Konuk
on Google
on Google Scholar

1. de Kloet AD, Pati D, Wang L, Hiller H, Sumners C, Frazier CJ, Seeley RJ, Herman JP, Woods SC, Krause EG. Angiotensin type 1a receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus protect against diet-induced obesity. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4825-33. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
2. Lux V, Kendler KS. Deconstructing major depression: a validation study of the DSM-IV symptomatic criteria. Psychol Med. 2010;40:1679-90. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
3. Chesler BE. Emotional eating: a virtually untreated risk factor for outcome following bariatric surgery. Scientific World Journal. 2012;365961. [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
4. Ganley RM. Emotion and eating in obesity: A review of the literature. International Journal of Eating Disorders 1989;8:8343-361 [DOI via Crossref]   
5. Greeno CG, Wing RR. Stress-induced eating. Psychological Bulletin. 1994;115:444-464 [DOI via Crossref]   
6. Schachter S, Goldman R,Gordon A. Effects of fear, food deprivation, and obesity on eating. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1968;10: 91-97. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
7. Heatherton TF, Herman CP, Polivy J. Effects of physical threat and ego threat on eating behavior. J PersSoc Psychol. 1991;60:138-143.
8. Ouwens MA, van Strien T, van der Staak CP. Tendency toward overeating and restraint as predictors of food consumption. Appetite. 2003;40:291-8. [DOI via Crossref]   
9. Telch CF, Agras WS. The effects of short-term food deprivation on caloric intake in eating-disordered subjects. Appetite. 1996;26:221-33. [DOI via Crossref]   
10. Polivy J, Herman CP, McFarlane T. Effects of anxiety on eating: Does palatability moderate distress-induced overeating in dieters? Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1994;103:505-510
11. Bekker MH, van de Meerendonk C, MollerusJ.Effects of negative mood induction and impulsivity on self-perceived emotional eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2004;36:461-469. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
12. Taylor GJ, Parker JD, Bagby RM, Bourke MP. Relationships between alexithymia and psychological characteristics associated with eating disorders. J Psychosom Res. 1996;41:561-568. [DOI via Crossref]   
13. Waller G, Matoba M. Emotional eating and eating psychopathology in nonclinical groups: a cross-cultural comparison of women in Japan and the United Kingdom. Int J Eat Disord. 1999;26:333-340. [DOI via Crossref]   
14. Blair AJ, Lewis VJ, Booth DA. Does emotional eating interfere with success in attempts at weight control? Appetite. 1990;15:151-157.
15. McCrone S, Dennis K, Tomoyasu N, Carroll J. A profile of early versus late onset of obesity in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2000;9:1007-1013. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
16. Carver CS, Scheier MF, Weintraub JK. Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. J PersSoc Psychol. 1989;56:267-83.
17. Henderson NJ, Huon GF. Negative affect and binge eating in overweight women. Br J Health Psychol. 2002;7:77-87. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
18. Relations between negative affect, coping, and emotional eating. Spoor ST, Bekker MH, Van Strien T, van Heck GL. Appetite. 2007;48:368-76.
19. Mehrabian A. Basic Dimensions for a General Psychological Theory. Oelschlager, Gunn &Hain, Cambridge.1980
20. Lyman B. The nutritional values and food group characteristics of food preferred during various emotions. Journal of Psychology. 1982;112; 121-127.
21. Patel KA, Schlundt DG. Impact of moods and social context on eating behavior. Appetite 2001;36,:111-118.
22. Macht M. Characteristics of eating in anger, fear, sadness and joy. Appetite 1999;33: 129-139. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
23. Davis R, Freeman R, Solyom L. Mood and food: an analysis of bulimic episodes. J Psychiatr Res. 1985;19:331-335. [DOI via Crossref]   
24. Oliver G, Wardle J, Gibson EL. Stress and food choice: a laboratory study. Psychosom Med. 2000;62:853-865. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
25. Kelley AE, Schiltz CA. Accessories to addiction: G protein regulators play a key role in cocaine seeking and neuroplasticity. Neuron. 2004;42:181-183. [DOI via Crossref]   
26. Canetti L, Bachar E, Berry EM. Food and emotion. Behav Processes. 2002;60:157-164. [DOI via Crossref]   
27. SchachterS.Some extraordinary facts about obese humans and rats.Am Psychol. 1971;26:129-144. [DOI via Crossref]   
28. Ruderman AJ.Obesity, anxiety, and food consumption. Addict Behav. 1983;8(3):235-42. [DOI via Crossref]   
29. Bruch H. Obesity in childhood and personality development. 1941. Obes Res. 1997;5:157-161.
30. Schachter S. Obesity and eating. Internal and external cues differentially affect the eating behavior of obese and normal subjects. Science. 1968 23;161:751-756.
31. Herman CP, Mack D. Restrained and unrestrained eating. J Pers. 1975;43:647-660. [DOI via Crossref]   
32. Herman CP, Polivy J. Restrained eating. In A. Stunkard (Ed.), Obesity (pp. 208-225). Philadelphia: Saunders. 1980.
33. Waller G, Osman S. Emotional eating and eating psychopathology among non-eating-disordered women. Int J Eat Disord. 1998;23:419-424. [DOI via Crossref]   
34. Heatherton TF, Baumeister RF. Binge eating as escape from self-awareness. Psychol Bull. 1991;110:86-108. [DOI via Crossref]   
35. Wallis DJ, Hetherington MM.Stress and eating: the effects of ego-threat and cognitive demand on food intake in restrained and emotional eaters.Appetite. 2004;43:39-46. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
36. Lindeman M, Stark K, Keskivaara P.Continuum and linearity hypotheses on the relationship between psychopathology and eating disorder symptomatology. Eat Weight Disord. 2001;6:181-187. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
37. Polivy J, Herman CP. Distress and eating: why do dieters overeat? Int J Eat Disord. 1999;26:153-164.
38. Abraham SF, Beumont PJ.How patients describe bulimia or binge eating.Psychol Med. 1982;12:625-635 [DOI via Crossref]   
39. Arnow B, Kenardy J, Agras WS.Binge eating among the obese: a descriptive study. J Behav Med. 1992;15:155-170. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
40. Stice E, Presnell K, Spangler D.Risk factors for binge eating onset in adolescent girls: a 2-year prospective investigation. Health Psychol. 2002;21:131-138. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
41. Van Strien T, Engels RC, Van Leeuwe J, Snoek HM.The Stice model of overeating: tests in clinical and non-clinical samples. Appetite. 2005;45:205-213. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
42. Wolff GE, Crosby RD, Roberts JA, Wittrock DA. Differences in daily stress, mood, coping, and eating behavior in binge eating and nonbinge eating college women. Addict Behav. 2000;25:205-216. [DOI via Crossref]   
43. BirgegÃ¥rd A, Clinton D, Norring C. Diagnostic issues of binge eating in eating disorders.Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2013;21:175-83. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
44. Masheb RM, Grilo CM. Emotional overeating and its associations with eating disorder psychopathology among overweight patients with binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2006;39:141-146. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
45. Pyle RL, Mitchell JE, Eckert ED. Bulimia: a report of 34 cases.JClin Psychiatry. 1981;42:60-64.
46. Mitchell JE, Pyle RL, Eckert E, Hatsukami D, Soll E. Bulimia nervosa with and without a history of overweight. J Subst Abuse. 1990;2:369-374. [DOI via Crossref]   
47. Nolan LJ, Geliebter A. Night eating is associated with emotional and external eating in college students. Eat Behav. 2012;13:202-206. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
48. Braet C, Crombez G. Cognitive interference due to food cues in childhood obesity. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2003;32:32-39. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
49. Christensen L. Effects of eating behavior on mood: a review of the literature.Int J Eat Disord. 1993;14:171-83 [DOI via Crossref]   
50. Macht M, Haupt C, Ellgring H. The perceived function of eating is changed during examination stress: a field study. Eat Behav. 2005;6:109-12. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
51. Macht M, Simons G. Emotions and eating in everyday life. Appetite. 2000;35:65-71. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
52. Blair AJ, Lewis VJ, Booth DA. Influences on food choice and intake. commentary from the 1st and 2nd food choice conferences. Prediction of success at weight loss from behaviour, attitudes, emotional eating and self-efficacy.Appetite. 1994;22:277-279.
53. Yanovski SZ, Nelson JE, Dubbert BK, Spitzer RL.Association of binge eating disorder and psychiatric comorbidity in obese subjects. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:1472-1479
54. Kaplan HI, Kaplan HS. The psychosomatic concept of obesity. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease1957; 125:181-201.
55. Apfeldorfer G, Zermati JP. Cognitive restraint in obesity. History of ideas, clinical description Presse Med. 2001;30:1575-1580.
56. Bruch, H. (1973). Eating disorders. Obesity and anorexia nervosa. Riverside: Behavior Science Book Service
57. Muller J, Dettmer D, Macht M.The Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire: psychometric properties and relationship to dimensions of eating. Appetite. 2008;50:499-505. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
58. Kenardy J, Arnow B, Agras WS.The aversiveness of specific emotional states associated with binge-eating in obese subjects. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1996;30:839-844. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
59. Bellisle F, Louis-Sylvestre J, Linet N, Rocaboy B, Dalle B, Cheneau F, L'Hinoret D, Guyot L.Anxiety and food intake in men. Psychosom Med. 1990;52:452-457. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
60. Foreyt JP, Brunner RL, Goodrick GK, Cutter G, Brownell KD, St Jeor ST.Psychological correlates of weight fluctuation. Int J Eat Disord. 1995;17:263-75. [DOI via Crossref]   
61. Geliebter A, Aversa A.Emotional eating in overweight, normal weight, and underweight individuals. Eat Behav. 2003;3:341-347. [DOI via Crossref]   
62. Barrett LF.Solving the emotion paradox: categorization and the experience of emotion.PersSocPsychol Rev. 2006;10:20-46.
63. Schachter S, Singer JE. Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state.Psychol Rev. 1962;69:379-399. [DOI via Crossref]   
64. De Chouly De Lenclave MB, Florequin C, Bailly D. Obesity, alexithymia, psychopathology and binge eating: a comparative. Encephale 2001; 27:343-350
65. Zeeck A, Stelzer N, Linster HW, Joos A, Hartmann A. Emotion and eating in binge eating disorder and obesity Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2011;19: 426-437
66. Pinna F, Lai L, Pirarba S, Orrù W, Velluzzi F, Loviselli A, CarpinielloB.Obesity, alexithymia and psychopathology: a case-control study. Eat Weight Disord. 2011;16:164-170
67. Da Ros A, Vinai P, Gentile N, Forza G, Cardetti S. Evaluation of alexithymia and depression in severe obese patients not affected by eating disorders.Eat Weight Disord. 2011;16:24-29. [DOI via Crossref]   
68. vanStrien T, Koenders PG. How do life style factors relate to general health and overweight?Appetite. 2012;58:265-70.
69. Annagur BB, Orhan FÖ, ÖzerA,Tamam L, Erhan C. ObezitedeDurtusellikveEmosyonelFaktorler: BirÖnÇaliþma. NoropsikiyatriArþivi 2012; 49: 14-9.
70. Canetti L, Berry EM, Elizur Y. Psychosocial predictors of weight loss and psychological adjustment following bariatric surgery and a weight-loss program: the mediating role of emotional eating.Int J Eat Disord. 2009;42:109-17 [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
71. Walfish S. Self-assessed emotional factors contributing to increased weight gain in pre-surgical bariatric patients.Obes Surg. 2004;14:1402-5. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
72. Colles SL, Dixon JB, O'Brien PE. Grazing and loss of control related to eating: two high-risk factors following bariatric surgery. Obesity. 2008;16:615-22. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   

This Article Cited By the following articles

The psychological effects of fast food consumption on body image emotions
British Food Journal 2018; (): .

Relationship between emotional appetite, eating attitudes, sleep quality, and body mass index in healthcare workers: a multi-centre study
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2019; 29(3): 346.

Factors affecting emotional eating and eating palatable food in adults
Nutr Res Pract 2020; 14(1): 70.

Davranış Bağımlılığına Sahip Müracaatçılara Yönelik Sosyal Hizmet Uygulamaları Üzerine Bir Tartışma
2020; (): .

Relationship between emotional eating and coping with stress of nursing students
Perspect Psychiatr Care 2020; (): .

Emotional eating behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN 2021; (): .

The nutritional behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder, parental feeding styles, and anthropometric measurements
Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 2021; (): 1.

Relationship between emotional eating and coping with stress of nursing students
Perspect Psychiatr Care 2021; 57(2): 433.

Yetişkin Yeme Davranışı Ölçeği: Türkçeye Uyarlama, Geçerlik ve Güvenilirlik Çalışması
2022; (): .

2022; (): .

Spor Merkezlerine Üye Olan Bireylerin Duygusal Yeme ve Sosyal Fizik Kaygı Düzeylerinin İncelenmesi
2021; 10(4): 3818.

The nutritional behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder, parental feeding styles, and anthropometric measurements
Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 2022; 76(1): 64.

Bozulmuş Yeme Örüntülerinde Bağlanmanın Yordayıcı Etkisi: Ergenler Üzerine Bir Çalışma
2021; (): .

The Mediator Role of Emotion-Focused Coping on the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Emotional Eating
Trends in Psychol. 2022; (): .

Solid or Liquid Food—The Intention to Eat Different Foods under Negative Emotions
Foods 2022; 11(9): 1180.

Factors associated with the weight change trend in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic: the case of Turkey
Nutr Res Pract 2021; 15(Suppl 1): S53.

The Effect Of Emotional Eatıng Disorders And Body Mass Index On Fınancıal Risk-Taking Behaviors
2022; (): .

Nutritional behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic: the association of fear and sleep quality with emotional eating
Eat Weight Disord 2022; 27(7): 2673.

Genç Yetişkinlerde Algılanan Stres ve Yalnızlığın Duygusal Yeme ile İlişkisi
JHS 2022; (): .

Analysis Of Emotional Eating Status In University Students
Iğdır Üniv. Fen Bil Enst. Der. 2022; (): 1292.

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Guzin Mukaddes Sevincer, Numan Konuk. [Emotional eating]. PBS. 2013; 3(4): 171-8. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20130926052526

Web Style

Guzin Mukaddes Sevincer, Numan Konuk. [Emotional eating]. https://www.pbsciences.org/?mno=40713 [Access: April 24, 2023]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20130926052526

AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Guzin Mukaddes Sevincer, Numan Konuk. [Emotional eating]. PBS. 2013; 3(4): 171-8. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20130926052526

Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Guzin Mukaddes Sevincer, Numan Konuk. [Emotional eating]. PBS. (2013), [cited April 24, 2023]; 3(4): 171-8. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20130926052526

Harvard Style

Guzin Mukaddes Sevincer, Numan Konuk (2013) [Emotional eating]. PBS, 3 (4), 171-8. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20130926052526

Turabian Style

Guzin Mukaddes Sevincer, Numan Konuk. 2013. [Emotional eating]. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 3 (4), 171-8. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20130926052526

Chicago Style

Guzin Mukaddes Sevincer, Numan Konuk. "[Emotional eating]." Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 3 (2013), 171-8. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20130926052526

MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Guzin Mukaddes Sevincer, Numan Konuk. "[Emotional eating]." Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 3.4 (2013), 171-8. Print.Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20130926052526

APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Guzin Mukaddes Sevincer, Numan Konuk (2013) [Emotional eating]. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 3 (4), 171-8. Turkish. doi:10.5455/jmood.20130926052526